Torque control is a control method used in variable-frequency drives to control the torque (and thus finally the speed) of three-phase AC electric motors. This involves calculating an estimate of the motor’s magnetic flux and torque based on the measured voltage and current of the motor.
Torque is estimated as a cross product of estimated stator flux linkage vector and measured motor current vector. The estimated flux magnitude and torque are then compared with their reference values. If either the estimated flux or torque deviates too far from the reference tolerance, the transistors of the variable frequency drive are turned off and on in such a way that the flux and torque errors will return in their tolerant bands as fast as possible. Thus direct torque control is one form of the hysteresis or bang-bang control.